Concrete Block
Micro-concrete roofinf tiles
Verticle Shaft Brick Klin
Ferro-cement channel
Laundry Soap
Dona Patta (cups and plates)
Wax Candles

Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln - For cleaner brick productionVertical Shaft Brick Kiln - For cleaner brick production
"Conventional burnt clay bricks will continue to be the main walling material for meeting the huge demand for housing in the foreseeable future, notwithstanding substantial efforts to develop alternatives. Current technologies for brick production such as clamps, downdraught kilns and Bull’s Trench Kilns consume large quantities of fuel such as coal, firewood and other biomass materials. The devastating effect of the pollution caused by huge amount of emissions from the brick industry has attracted the attention of regulatory agencies who have issued deadlines after which the polluting kilns are to "clean up or close down." In the Agra trapezium, the Hon'ble Supreme Court of India has enforced a total closure of brick kilns."

The search for cleaner brick production technologies has led to the identification of Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln (VSBK) technology. The Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln technology originally developed in China is an energy efficient, environment friendly and economically viable means to produce quality bricks. It has been adapted to Indian conditions and successfully field tested at 4 geographical locations. Further, it has received certification from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for operations in accordance with stipulated environmental norms.

Major Advantages of VSBK technology
It represents a extremely energy-efficient, low-cost method of firing bricks. The fired quality is high with very low wastage.
Emissions from the kiln are well within acceptable limits
The kilns require very little maintenance once constructed and are not complicated to build.
The kiln is very compact not requiring a large area of land and can be built near to the clay source.
The construction cost is low.
The kiln is not affected by variations in the weather as long as dry green bricks are available.
More than one shaft allows for firing flexibility to cope with seasonal and economical variations in brick production and demand.
The kiln is highly suitable for use where fuel is incorporated into the brick.

Salient features of existing VSBK’s in India
Location Organization No of Shafts Shaft Size Production Capacity
VSBK 1 Datia, M.P. Development Alternatives, NGO 2 1 x 1 m 1 x 1.5 m ~5000
VSBK 2 Kankia, Orissa Gram Vikas, NGO 2 1 x 1.75 m 1 x 1.75 m ~ 7000 per day
VSBK 3 Palghat, Kerala Comtrust, NGO 2 1 x1.75 m – 3nos 1x 2 m – 1no ~14500per day
VSBK 4 Pune, Maharashtra MITCON-DAMLE Pvt. Ltd. 2 1x 2 m – 1 no 1.25 x 2 m – 1no ~ 9500 per day
VSBK 5 Gwalior, M.P. Yade Brick Industries Pvt. Ltd. 2+2 1 x 2 m – 4nos ~ 16000 per day
VSBK 2000 Best practice + R&D Kiln Datia, M.P Development Alternatives 2(BPE) +1 (R&D) BPE 1.25x1.75 m – 2nos + R&D 1x1.5 m – 1 no 8500 + 3000 per day
Notes Upscaling to achieve higher brick production (5000 to 9500 bricks per day)
Progressive increase in shaft dimensions from 1 m x 1m to 1.25 m x 2 m

VSBK ConstructionVSBK Construction – 
Basic Features

The VSBK consists of one or more shafts located inside a rectangular brick structure. the shafts are 1 m wide with nominal lengths of 1 m, 1.5 m, 1.75m or 2m. The inside surface is a brick wall, sometimes lined with refractory brick. The gap between the shaft wall and the outer kiln wall is filled with insulating materials like clay and rice husk etc.

The shaft is loaded from the top with a number of batches of bricks for firing. Each batch contains four layers of bricks set in a pre-determined pattern. The stack of bricks rest on square support bars (which can be removed or inserted) resting on a pair of horizontal beams across the arches in the unloading tunnel.

VSBK – How It Works
During operation, one batch of dried green bricks is loaded at the top at a time. A weighed quantity of powdered coal (less than 6 mm) is spread on each layer uniformly to fill the gaps. The brick unloading is done from the bottom using a trolley which runs on rails along the length of the unloading tunnel. Lifting and lowering of the trolley is done using single screw unloading mechanism. For unloading, the trolley is lifted so that whole stack of bricks in the shaft rests on it. Further slight lifting of the trolley (and the stack) releases the support bars, which are removed from either side. The stack is then lowered till the layer with openings appears, through which the support bars are then re-inserted. On further lowering, the load of the stack is taken by the support bars except for the batch being unloaded which comes down along with the trolley which finally rests on a pair of rails. The trolley is later cooled out along the rails and the bricks subsequently unloaded and sorted out to despatch. The next batch is loaded at the top using green bricks lifted upto the loading platform. The frequency of unloading – loading from 90 to 150 minutes.

The skill in operation is to keep the firing zone in the middle of the shaft. The draught of air moving up from the bottom cools the fired bricks in the cooling zone and itself gets heated. Maximum temperature of upto 1000o C are attained in the central firing zone. This recovery of sensible heat accounts for the high energy efficiency of the VSBK technology.

VSBK – Financial Implications & Returns
Project Details
Daily Production per Shaft 3750
Number of Shafts 2
Daily Kiln Production 7500
Number of days of operation per year 200
Annual Production 15,00,000
Saleable Production (95%) 14,25,000
Sale Price Rs. 1100 per 1000
Project Cost
Land (provided by Entrepreneur)
Tubewell and Pump 90,000
Daily Kiln Production 25,000
VSBK (Construction and Equipment) 4,25,000
Wheel Barrows 20,000
Technology Fees 50,000
Preoperative Costs 40,000
Extruder (with Installation) 1,60,000
Working Capital 1,55,000
Total 9,65,000
Sales Value 15,67,500
Materials and Operating Costs 11,60,000
Marketing Costs 71,000
Finance Costs @ 14% 1,35,000
Sub Total 13,66,000
Profit before Depreciation and Interest 2,01,500
1. The figures are typical. The input and operational costs and selling price of burnt brick vary from location to location.
2. the land requirement for above would be of the order of 3000 m2 .